aA catheter-delivered closure device, such as amplatzer septal occluderan Amplatzer Septal Occluder or cardio-seal devicea cardioSEAL, may be used for closure of atrial septal defects less than 13 mm in size, except in primum or sinus venosus defects, ifdefect. If the defect is greater than thirteen milimeters13 mm or located near important structures. Surgical, surgical repair becomes neccessarynecessary. If the atrial septal defect is reepairedrepaired during childhood there, mortality rates approach 0zero, and the patient's life expectancy approaches that of the general population. priorPrior to surgical repair, patients may need to be treated with diuretics;, digoxin;, an ACE inhibitor;, or beta blockers to prevent congestive hearheart failure (Moser & Riegel, 2007). followingFollowing surgical repair, patiencepatients will receive aspirin to prevent clots, and be monitored closely for dysrhythmias and pulmonary hypertension. Oxygen and nitric oxide therapy have proven to be beneficial in treating postoperative pulmonary hypertension. Also, patients who have a primum atrial septal defect will need endocarditis prophylaxis.

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